MN 118 The Breath as a Reminder

HeartDhamma

MN 118 The Breath as a Reminder

 

Ānāpānassati Sutta #

 

A teaching on cultivating awareness,

Though relaxing tension and developing joy,

using the breath as a reminder.

 

[This is doubtlessly one the most important suttas of the entire Pāḷi canon. Here, a meditator will find clear, thorough and practical meditation instructions in which the Buddha provides an unmistakable, step-by-step process to cultivate the higher mind. Meditation using the breath as a reminder was probably the most widespread and practiced meditation technique that he taught along with Mettā and the Brahmavihāras.

 

            Here, we find a sublime sequence on how to develop the mind through letting go of tension and the purposeful cultivation of joy and happiness which naturally results in awareness. A wonderful detailed explanation of how this practice fulfills the four resting places of awareness, the seven supports of awakening and Release by Understanding. Some of the most salient features of his teaching.

 

    The setting only adds to the meaning of this discourse where many elder monks, including most of his prominent elder disciples, are teaching newer ones (Which is a unique scene in the Canon). Since the Buddha sees much progress in this company of monks, he decides to remain there longer, saying himself: ‘I am happy with this progress monk!’]

 

 

This I have heard

 

[1. Introduction] #

 

Once the Awakened One was living at Sāvatthi,

At the eastern monastery, on Migāra’s mother’s terrace,

together with many highly realized Elder disciples:

 

The Venerable Sāriputta

The Venerable Mahāmoggallāna

The Venerable Mahākassapa

The Venerable Mahākaccāna

The Venerable Mahākoṭṭhika

The Venerable Mahākappina

The Venerable Mahācunda

The Venerable Anuruddha

The Venerable Revata

The Venerable Ānanda

and many others.

 

[Pavāraṇa Training]

 

At that time, Elder monks where guiding and teaching new monks.

Some elder monks were guiding and teaching ten monks,

Some, twenty monks,

Some, thirty monks,

And some even up to forty monks;

 

And those new monks

Were experiencing wonderful progress.[1]

 

Then, on that day of the uposatha, the fifteenth,

Full-moon night of the pavāraṇa[2] ceremony, [after the rains]

 

The Awakened One was sitting in the open,

Surrounded by the saṅgha of monks.

The Awakened One, while keeping silent,

Looked around at the saṅgha of monks and said:

 

“I am glad about this practice monks,

This kind of practice gladdens my mind.”[3]

 

“Monks, deploy even more determination

To arrive at the unarrived,

To attain the unattained, and

To realize the unrealized.”[4]

“I will stay here, in Sāvatthi, until Komudi[5] in four months.”

 

[Training Until Komudi]

 

Having heard this, monks of the country

Came down to Sāvatthi to visit the Awakened One.

 

Then, with even more determination:

The elder monks guided and taught the monks.

And those new monks

Kept experiencing wonderful progress.

 

Then, on the full-moon night of uposatha, the fifteenth,

Komuda, four months later,

The Awakened One was sitting in the open,

Surrounded by the saṅgha of monks.

And while keeping silent,

He looked around the and said:

 

[The Buddha’s Praise]

 

“This company is rid of senseless talk

This company is done with senselessness,

Cleansed to the pith, it stands.[6]

 

This is found in this company of monks.

 

Such a company is

Worthy of support,

Worthy of welcomes,

Worthy of offerings,

Worthy of respect,

An unrivaled field of goodness for this universe.[7]

 

This is found in this company of monks.

 

To such a company,

Even giving next to nothing generates a lot,

And giving much generates incalculably.[8]

 

This is found in this company of monks.

 

Such a company is

Hard to find in this world,

It is not easily encountered.[9]

 

This is found in this company of monks.

 

Such company is

Worth traveling to lay eyes upon,

Even if one were to carry one’s own provisions

            for many leagues.[10]

 

This is found in this company of monks.

 

[The Four Awakened People]

 

In this company,

There are monks who are Arahants,

Vanquishers of mental tension,

Perfected ones,

Having done what had to be done,

Having laid down the burden,

Having achieved true meaning,

Unleashed from the shackles of becoming,

And released by perfect understanding.[11]

 

There are monks who

Having undone the five worldly fetters,

Will appear instantaneously [in a Brahma plane],

Bound to attain Final Unbinding there,

Not subject to coming back to this world.[12]

 

There are monks who

Having undone the three fetters,

And with the gradual fading of

outward desire,

impatience

and confusion,

Will return only once here,

Having returned to this world,

They will make an end of tension. [13]

 

There are monks who

Having undone the three fetters,

Not subject to falling away,

Are securely bound for complete awakening, [14]

 

[The Buddha’s Practices]

 

There are monks who meditate,

Completely dedicated to the development of

The four resting places of awareness. [15]

 

There are monks who meditate,

Completely dedicated to the development of

The four excellent undertakings;

The four psychic potencies;

The five faculties;

The five powers;

The seven supports of awakening;

And the eight-spoked path of the awakened.

 

There are monks who meditate,

Completely dedicated to the development of

Boundless Love;

Boundless compassion;

Boundless joy;

Boundless calm.

 

There are monks who meditate,

Completely dedicated to the development of

Unattractiveness; [16]

Constant change. [17]

There are monks who meditate,

Completely dedicated to the development of

 

Awareness, using the breath as a reminder.

 

[2. Instructions] #

 

Monks,

When developed and cultivated,

Meditation using the breath as a reminder is

Highly fruitful and very beneficial.[18]

 

When developed and cultivated,

It fulfills the Four Resting Places of Awareness.[19]

 

When developed and cultivated,

These Four Resting Places of Awareness,

Fulfill the Seven Supports of Awakening.[20]

 

And when developed and cultivated,

The Seven Supports of Awakening,

Fulfills Release by Understanding.[21]

 

How is meditation

Using the breath as a reminder cultivated,

For it to be highly fruitful and beneficial?

 

[Seclusion]

 

Here monks,

Someone resorts

To the forest,

At the root of a tree,

In an empty cabin,

Sitting down with legs folded and body upright

Having reposed one’s awareness about oneself.

 

Breathing in with presence,

Breathing out with presence.[22]

 

[First Stage]

 

(1) One is aware of a long breath as a long breath.

Breathing in and breathing out. [23]

 

(2) One is aware of a short breath as a short breath.

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(3) One trains: To experience the whole body.

Breathing in and breathing out. [24]

 

(4) One trains: To calm the tension in the body. [25]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

[Second Stage]

 

(5) One trains: To experience joy. [26]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(6) One trains: To experience happiness. [27]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(7) One trains: To experience the movements of the mind.[28]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(8) One trains: To calm the movements of the mind,[29]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

[Third Stage]

 

(9) One trains: To experience the mind,[30]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(10) One trains: To uplift the mind with joy.[31]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(11) One trains: To gather the mind.[32]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(12) One trains: To untangle the mind.[33]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

[Fourth Stage]

 

(13) One trains: To see constant change.[34]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(14) One trains: To see calming down.[35]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(15) One trains: To see the end of awareness.[36]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(16) One trains: To see breaking free.[37]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

This is how to cultivate awareness,

using the breath as a reminder,

for it to be highly fruitful and beneficial.

 

[3. Fulfilling the Four Resting Places] #

 

How is meditation using the breath as a reminder

Cultivated and developed,

So that it fulfills the four Resting Places of Awareness?[38]

 

[1. Body as Body] #

 

At the time when:

 

(1) One is aware of a long as a long breath.

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(2) One is aware of a short breath as a short breath.

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(3) One trains: To experience the whole body.

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(4) One trains: To calm the tension in the body.

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

At that time,

One is resting one’s awareness upon body,

Knowing it as only ‘body,’

Intent, fully conscious and present,

Letting go of tension and distractions.[39]

 

I say, this is just another bodily experience,[40]

Bound up with the body, that is:

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

[2. Sensations as Sensations] #

 

At the time when:

 

(5) One trains: To experience joy.

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(6) One trains: To experience happiness.

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(7) One trains: To experience the movements of the mind.

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(8) One trains to calm the movements of the mind.

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

At that time,

One is resting one’s awareness upon sensations,

Knowing them as only sensations,

Intent, fully conscious and present,

Letting go of tension and distractions.

.

 

I say, this is just another kind of felt experience,

Bound up amongst all that is felt, that is:

Wise attention, breathing in and breathing out.[41]

 

[3. Mind as Mind] #

 

At the time when:

 

(9) One trains: To experience the mind,

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(10) One trains: To uplift the mind with joy.

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(11) One trains: To gather the mind.

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(12) One trains: To untangle the mind.

Breathing in and breathing out

 

At that time,

One is resting one’s awareness upon mind,

Simply knowing it as mind,

Intent, fully conscious and present,

Letting go of tension and distractions.

 

I say there is no awareness with the breath

For one who forgets to be present and fully conscious.[42]

 

[4. Mental States as Mental States] #

 

At the time when:

 

(13) One trains: To see constant change. [43]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(14) One trains: To see calming down. [44]

Breathing in and breathing out.

 

(15) One trains: To see the end of awareness.

Breathing in and breathing out

 

(16) One trains: To see breaking free. [45]

Breathing in and breathing out

 

At that time,

One is resting one’s awareness upon mental states,

Knowing them as only mental states,

Intent, fully conscious and present,

Letting go of tension and distractions.

 

Seeing with discernment,

Tension and distractions are abandoned,

And one wisely attends with steadiness.[46]

 

Developed and cultivated in this way monks

Meditation using the breath as a reminder

Fulfills the Four Resting Places of Awareness.

 

[4. Fulfilling the Supports of Awakening] #

 

How are the Four Resting Places of Awareness

Cultivated and developed,

So that they fulfill the Seven Supports of Awakening?[47]

 

[Body as Body] #

 

[1. Awareness] #

 

When one meditates

Resting one’s awareness on the body,

Knowing it as body,

Intent, fully conscious, and present,

Letting go of tension and distractions;

 

One is not carried away [48] [by distractions]

and there comes to be awareness.

 

When one is not carried away,

and there comes to be awareness,

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of awareness

Becomes manifest,[49]

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.[50]

 

[2. Discernment] #

 

Meditating with this awareness,

One seeks [wholesome states],

Discards [unwholesome ones],

And completely understands

One’s mental states that arise using discernment.[51]

 

Whenever one is meditating with awareness;

Seeking [wholesome states],

Discarding [unwholesome ones],

And completely understanding

One’s mental states that arise using discernment;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of discernment

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.[52]

 

[3. Inspiration] [53] #

 

Whenever there is

Seeking [wholesome states],

Discarding [unwholesome ones],

And complete understanding

Of one’s mental states that arise using discernment,

Continually, enthusiastically;[54]

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of inspiration

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[4. Joy] #

 

With this inspired practice; spiritual joy arises. [55]

Whenever spiritual joy arises because of inspired practice; [56]

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of joy

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[5. Calm] #

 

With this spiritual joy,

The body calms down,

And the mind calms down.[57]

 

Whenever the body calms down,

And the mind calms down.

Because of spiritual joy,

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of calm

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[6. Collectedness] #

 

With this calmness of body,

The happy mind becomes unified. [58]

 

Whenever the happy mind becomes unified

By way of bodily calm;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of mental collectedness

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[7. Mental Steadiness] #

 

With this calm collected mind,

One steadily attends with discernment. [59]

 

Whenever one steadily attends with discernment

By way of calm collectedness of mind;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of mental steadiness

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

It gradually matures by development.

 

[2. Sensations as Sensations] #

 

[1. Awareness]

 

When one meditates

Resting one’s awareness on sensations,

Knowing it as only ‘sensations’,

Intent, fully conscious, and present,

Letting go of tension and distractions;

 

One is not carried away [by distractions]

and there comes to be awareness.

 

When one is not carried away,

and there comes to be awareness,

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of awareness

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[2. Discernment]

 

Meditating with this awareness,

One seeks [wholesome states],

Discards [unwholesome ones],

And completely understands

One’s mental states that arise using discernment.

 

Whenever one is meditating with awareness;

Seeking [wholesome states],

Discarding [unwholesome ones],

And completely understanding

One’s mental states that arise using discernment;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of discernment

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[3. Inspiration]

 

Whenever there is

Seeking [wholesome states],

Discarding [unwholesome ones],

And complete understanding

Of one’s mental states that arise using discernment,

Continually, enthusiastically;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of inspiration[60]

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[4. Joy]

 

With this inspired practice; spiritual joy arises.

Whenever spiritual joy arises because of inspired practice;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of joy

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[5. Calm]

 

With this spiritual joy,

The body calms down,

And the mind calms down.

 

Whenever the body calms down,

And the mind calms down.

Because of spiritual joy,

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of calm

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[6. Collectedness]

 

With this calmness of body,

The happy mind becomes unified.

 

Whenever the happy mind becomes unified

By way of bodily calm;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of mental collectedness

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[7. Mental Steadiness]

 

With this calm collected mind,

One steadily attends with discernment.

 

Whenever one steadily attends with discernment

By way of calm collectedness of mind;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of mental steadiness

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

It gradually matures by development.

 

[3. Mind as Mind]

 

[1. Awareness]

 

When one meditates

Resting one’s awareness on the mind,

Knowing it as only ‘mind’,

Intent, fully conscious, and present,

Letting go of tension and distractions;

 

One is not carried away [by distractions]

and there comes to be awareness.

When one is not carried away,

and there comes to be awareness,

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of awareness

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[2. Discernment]

 

Meditating with this awareness,

One seeks [wholesome states],

Discards [unwholesome ones],

And completely understands

One’s mental states that arise using discernment.

 

Whenever one is meditating with awareness;

Seeking [wholesome states],

Discarding [unwholesome ones],

And completely understanding

One’s mental states that arise using discernment;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of discernment

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[3. Inspiration]

 

Whenever there is

Seeking [wholesome states],

Discarding [unwholesome ones],

And complete understanding

Of one’s mental states that arise using discernment,

Continually, enthusiastically;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of inspiration

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[4. Joy]

 

With this inspired practice; spiritual joy arises.

Whenever spiritual joy arises because of inspired practice;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of joy

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[5. Calm]

 

With this spiritual joy,

The body calms down,

And the mind calms down.

 

Whenever the body calms down,

And the mind calms down.

Because of spiritual joy,

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of calm

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[6. Collectedness]

 

With this calmness of body,

The happy mind becomes unified.

 

Whenever the happy mind becomes unified

By way of bodily calm;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of mental collectedness

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[7. Mental Steadiness]

 

With this calm collected mind,

One steadily attends with discernment.

 

Whenever one steadily attends with discernment

By way of calm collectedness of mind;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of mental steadiness

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

It gradually matures by development.

 

[Mental States as Mental States]

 

[1. Awareness]

 

When one meditates

Resting one’s awareness on mental states,

Knowing them as ‘mental states’,

Intent, fully conscious, and present,

Letting go of tension and distractions;

 

One is not carried away [by distractions]

and there comes to be awareness.

When one is not carried away,

and there comes to be awareness,

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of awareness

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[2. Discernment]

 

Meditating with this awareness,

One seeks [wholesome states],

Discards [unwholesome ones],

And completely understands

One’s mental states that arise using discernment.

 

Whenever one is meditating with awareness;

Seeking [wholesome states],

Discarding [unwholesome ones],

And completely understanding

One’s mental states that arise using discernment;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of discernment

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[3. Inspiration]

 

Whenever there is

Seeking [wholesome states],

Discarding [unwholesome ones],

And complete understanding

Of one’s mental states that arise using discernment,

Continually, enthusiastically;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of inspiration

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[4. Joy]

 

With this inspired practice; spiritual joy arises.

Whenever spiritual joy arises because of inspired practice;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of joy

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[5. Calm]

 

With this spiritual joy,

The body calms down,

And the mind calms down.

 

Whenever the body calms down,

And the mind calms down.

Because of spiritual joy,

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of calm

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[6. Collectedness]

 

With this calmness of body,

The happy mind becomes unified.

 

Whenever the happy mind becomes unified

By way of bodily calm;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of mental collectedness

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

And it gradually matures by development.

 

[7. Mental Steadiness]

 

With this calm collected mind,

One steadily attends with discernment.

 

Whenever one steadily attends with discernment

By way of calm collectedness of mind;

 

At that time,

The support of awakening of mental steadiness

Becomes manifest,

It is being developed,

It gradually matures by development.

 

[5. Fulfilling Release by Understanding] #

 

How are the seven supports of awakening,

Developed and cultivated

To fulfill release by understanding?

 

Here,

(1) One develops awakening support of awareness which comes from:

Letting go,

Calming down,

Release

And culminates in complete surrender.[61]

 

(2) One develops awakening support of discernment which comes from:

Letting go,

Calming down,

Release

And culminates in complete surrender.

 

(3) One develops awakening support of inspiration which comes from:

Letting go,

Calming down,

Release

And culminates in complete surrender.

 

(4) One develops awakening support of joy which comes from:

Letting go,

Calming down,

Release

And culminates in complete surrender.

 

(5) One develops awakening support of calm which comes from:

Letting go,

Calming down,

Release

And culminates in complete surrender.

 

(6) One develops awakening support of mental collectedness which comes from:

Letting go,

Calming down,

Release

And culminates in complete surrender.

 

(7) One develops the awakening support of steadiness which comes from:

Letting go,

Calming down,

Release

And culminates in complete surrender.

 

This is how to develop and cultivate

The seven supports of awakening,

To fulfill release by understanding.[62]

 

This is what the Awakened One said.

Glad at heart, the monks rejoiced in his words.

 

 

 

[1] uḷāraṃ pubbenāparaṃ visesaṃ jānanti.

[2] Pavāraṇā: A ceremony at the termination of the Vassa. Invitation to admonish. Where monks gather and invite their fellow monks to tell them if they have commited any fault.

[3] “āraddhosmi, bhikkhave, imāya paṭipadāya; āraddhacittosmi, bhikkhave, imāya paṭipadāya.

[4] Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, bhiyyoso mattāya vīriyaṃ ārabhatha appattassa pattiyā, anadhigatassa adhigamāya, asacchikatassa sacchikiriyāya.

[5] Komudi: Full moon day of the fourth month, Kattika.

[6] “Apalāpāyaṃ, bhikkhave, parisā; nippalāpāyaṃ, bhikkhave, parisā; suddhā sāre patiṭṭhitā.

[7] parisā yathārūpā parisā āhuneyyā pāhuneyyā dakkhiṇeyyā añjalikaraṇīyā anuttaraṃ puññakkhettaṃ lokassa.

[8] parisāya appaṃ dinnaṃ bahu hoti, bahu dinnaṃ bahutaraṃ.

[9] parisā yathārūpā parisā dullabhā dassanāya lokassa.

[10] parisaṃ alaṃ yojanagaṇanāni dassanāya gantuṃ puṭosenāpi.

[11] arahanto khīṇāsavā vusitavanto katakaraṇīyā ohitabhārā anuppattasadatthā parikkhīṇabhavasaṃyojanā sammadaññāvimuttā

[12] pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā opapātikā tattha parinibbāyino anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā

[13] tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā rāgadosamohānaṃ tanuttā sakadāgāmino sakideva imaṃ lokaṃ āgantvā dukkhassantaṃ karissanti

[14] tiṇṇaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyanā

[15] catunnaṃ satipaṭṭhānānaṃ bhāvanānuyogamanuyuttā viharanti—

[16] asubhabhāvanānuyogamanuyuttā viharanti …

[17] aniccasaññābhāvanānuyogamanuyuttā viharanti—

[18] Ānāpānassati, bhikkhave, bhāvitā bahulīkatā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā.

[19] Ānāpānassati, bhikkhave, bhāvitā bahulīkatā cattāro satipaṭṭhāne paripūreti.

[20] Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā bhāvitā bahulīkatā   satta bojjhaṅge paripūrenti.

[21] Satta bojjhaṅgā bhāvitā bahulīkatā vijjāvimuttiṃ paripūrenti.

[22] So satova   assasati,  satova passasati.

[23] Dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ti pajānāti, dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ti pajānāti; The verb pajānāti denotes that one is only ‘aware of this, not ‘training’ to do this. The ‘training’ comes in the next steps as ‘sikkhati.’ This step here is a passive one.

[24] ‘sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘sabba-kāya-paṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati;

[25] Passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ

[26] Pītipaṭisaṃvedī

[27] Sukhapaṭisaṃvedī

[28] Cittasaṅkhārapaṭisaṃvedī

[29] Passambhayaṃ cittasaṅkhāraṃ

[30] Cittapaṭisaṃvedī

[31] Abhippamodayaṃ cittaṃ

[32] Samādahaṃ cittaṃ

[33] Vimocayaṃ cittaṃ

[34] Aniccānupassī

[35] Virāgānupassī: Disengaging

[36] Nirodhānupassī

[37] Paṭinissaggānupassī: Breaking Free.

[38] Kathaṃ bhāvitā ca, bhikkhave, ānāpānassati kathaṃ bahulīkatā cattāro satipaṭṭhāne paripūreti?

[39] kāye kāyānupassī, bhikkhave, tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.

[40] Kāyesu kāyaññatarāhaṃ, bhikkhave, evaṃ vadāmi yadidaṃ—assāsapassāsā. Kāyaññatarāhaṃ: Process

[41] Vedanāsu vedanāññatarāhaṃ, bhikkhave, evaṃ vadāmi yadidaṃ—assāsapassāsānaṃ sādhukaṃ manasikāraṃ. Wise attention is to apply wise practice constantly, that is: To train, experiencing joy and happiness, knowing the distractions in the mind and calming them down. Practicing this wise attention with each breath.

[42] Nāhaṃ muṭṭhassatissa asampajānassa ānāpānassatiṃ vadāmi.

[43] ‘Aniccānupassī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati,

[44] Virāgānupassī: Disengaging

[45] Paṭinissaggānupassī: Breaking Free.

[46] So yaṃ taṃ abhijjhādomanassānaṃ pahānaṃ taṃ paññāya disvā sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hoti.

[47] Kathaṃ bhāvitā ca, bhikkhave, cattāro satipaṭṭhānā kathaṃ bahulīkatā satta bojjhaṅge paripūrenti?

[48] Upaṭṭhitāssa tasmiṃ samaye sati hoti asammuṭṭhā. Asammuṭṭhā: Unconfused, not forgetful, not carried away by hindrances. Upaṭṭhita [pp. of upaṭṭhahati or upatiṭṭhāti, cp. BSk. upa-sthita] — 1. furnished provided, served, got ready, honoured. — 2. come, come about, appeared, arrived; present, existing. — 3. standing up (ready), keeping in readiness (= ṭhito C.); (ready for service, serving, waiting upon.

[49] satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti. Āraddha (adj.) [pp. of ā + rabh] begun, started, bent on, undertaking, holding on to, resolved, firm. Other translation as: comes into being, becomes manifest.

[50] satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati. (1)

[51] So tathāsato viharanto taṃ dhammaṃ paññāya pavicinati pavicayati parivīmaṃsaṃ āpajjati. Vicinati (°cināti) [vi+cināti] 1. to investigate, examine, discriminate (yoniso vicine dhammaṁ) — 2. to look for, to seek, to linger, to choose. Vicaya [fr. vi+ci: see vicinati] search, investigation, examination. Parivīmaṁsati [pari+vīmaṁsati, Desid. of pari+man, cp. vīmaṁsā for mīmāṁsā] to think over, consider thoroughly, examine, search Parivīmaṁsá (f.) [pari+vīmaṁsā] complete inquiry, thorough search or examination. Vīmaṁsati (& °eti) [Vedic mīmāṁsate, Desid. of man. The P. form arose through dissimilation m>v] “to try to think,” to consider, examine, find out, investigate, test, trace, think over. Vīmaṁsana (nt.) & °ā (f.) [fr. vīmaṁsati] trying, testing; finding out, experiment. Vīmaṁsā (f.) [fr. vīmaṁsati] consideration, examination, test, investigation, the fourth of the Iddhipādas.

[52] dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṃ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṃ gacchati. (2)

[53] Motivation, ambition

[54] āraddhaṃ hoti vīriyaṃ asallīnaṃ.

[55] Āraddhavīriyassa uppajjati pīti nirāmisā. Nirāmisā: Not carnal. Spiritual. The very special joy of mental development here should not be mistaken with the base pleasures of sensory indulgence.

[56] bhikkhuno āraddhavīriyassa uppajjati pīti nirāmisā,

[57] Pītimanassa kāyopi passambhati, cittampi passambhati.

[58] Passaddhakāyassa sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati.

[59] So tathāsamāhitaṃ cittaṃ sādhukaṃ ajjhupekkhitā hoti.

[60] Motivation, initiative, dedication, application, devotion

[61] bhikkhu satisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti vivekanissitaṃ virāganissitaṃ nirodhanissitaṃ vossaggapariṇāmiṃ.

[62] Evaṃ bhāvitā kho, bhikkhave, satta bojjhaṅgā evaṃ bahulīkatā vijjāvimuttiṃ paripūrentī”ti.

 

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